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Learn conjunctions with examples

definition of conjunction

Conjunction is a part of speech that joins two words, clauses, phrases or sentences together.


(1) My sister is a honest and beautiful girl.

NOTE- In this sentence, ”AND” joins the two words, honest and beautiful so ”AND” is a conjunction.

(2) My brother is a intelligent boy but he has not passed the exam.

NOTE- In this sentence, ”BUT” joins the two sentences( first sentence- My brother is a intelligent boy and second sentence- He has not passed the exam)

Conjunctions are divided into two main classes

(1) Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions connect two words, clauses, phrases or sentences of equal rank.


(a) Mike reads books daily but his brother do not read books.

(b) I do not know who is honest between him and his sister.

(2) Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate clause to a principal clause.


(a) We will go to market if you come to my home.

(b) I do not want to go to the school because I have not completed my home work.

Uses of Important conjunctions


This conjunction is called correlative conjunction because it is always in pair. Always after ”NOT ONLY”, ”BUT ALSO” is used.


(a) Not only I but also my brother went to play cricket.

(b) She not only will go to other country but also will stay there.

(c) My father is going to open not only a school but also a hotel.

(d) Not only has my father opened a school but he has also opened a hotel.

( Note- If ” not only” is used in the starting of sentence, use inversion.)

(e) we come here not only to study but also to play.

EITHER ……………….OR” and ”NEITHER ………NOR

These conjunctions are always used in pair. Verb must be used according to nearest subject. They are also called correlative conjunction.


Incorrect- Either he or his brother are going to meet their sister.

Correct- Either he or his brother is going to meet their sister.

Incorrect- Neither he nor I is reading book.

Correct- Neither he nor I am reading book.

Incorrect- Neither Mike nor his sisters is going to school.

Correct- Neither Mike nor his sisters are going to school.

Conjunction- ”LEST”

“Lest” is always followed by “should’. and It never use ”not”.

Incorrect- Walk slowly lest you may fall.

Correct- Walk slowly lest you should fall.

Incorrect- Studied hard lest you should not fail.

correct- Studied hard lest you should fail.


”NO SOONER” is always followed by ” THAN” not ” then” and we always use inversion.


Incorrect- No sooner did he arrive the station when the train started.

Correct- No sooner did he arrive the station than the train started.

Incorrect- No sooner police came to catch the thief than he ran away.

Correct- No sooner did police come to catch the thief than he ran away.


when sentences describe the certainty, we use ” THAT” . When sentences describe the uncertainty, we use ”IF and WHETHER”. ” IF” is used for one sided condition and “WHETHER” is used for two sided condition and followed by ” OR”.


(1) I am sure that he is a doctor. ( certainty)

(2) I doubt if he is a doctor. ( uncertainly)

(3) I am sure that my brother will pass. ( certainty)

(4) I am not sure if he will pass. ( uncertainty)

(5) I am certain that he can do. ( certainty)

(6) I do not know whether she will go or not for a coffee. ( uncertainty)

(7) He do not know whether he is going to perform or his brother

(8) He is doubtful whether she love him or not.


Though and although are followed by “YET” or ”COMMA”.


(1) Though he is rich yet he is dishonest.

or Though he is rich, he is dishonest.

(2) Although he ate too much already yet he wants to eat more.

or Although he ate too much already, He wants to eat more.

BOTH……………………….. AND

”And” is used after ”BOTH”. Do not use other words like or/ as well as etc after ” both”.


(1) Both she and her sister are beautiful.

(2) Both Ronaldo and his friend will come to party tomorrow.


We do not use ”NOT” with these words. These words are always followed by ” when” or ” before”.


Incorrect- Hardly had he reached the station then the train started.

Correct- Hardly had he reached the station when the train stated.

Incorrect- Hardly had he come out the house that his friend came to play.

Correct- Hardly had he come out the house when his friend came to play.


Problems are created if you use these conjunctions like ” seldom if never ” and ” seldom or ever”. That will be wrong.


Incorrect- Seldom if never have I played football.

Correct- Seldom if ever have I played football.

Incorrect- Seldom or ever have I played football.

Correct- Seldom or never have I played football.


The meaning of ”UNTIL” is ” till not” and it refers to condition of the time. The meaning of the ” UNLESS” is ” if not” and it refers to general condition. ” not” is not used after ‘ until and unless’.


Incorrect- I will not go from here until you do not come.

Correct- I will not go from here until you come.

Incorrect- The workers will not let the strike off until manager holds a meeting with them.

Correct- The workers will not let the strike off unless manager holds a meeting with them.


Because, as and since are followed by ” comma”. If you use other words instead of ‘comma’, sentence will be incorrect.


Incorrect- Because it was a rainy day so I did not go out side.

Correct- Because it was a rainy day, I did not go out side.

Incorrect- Since he was a terrorist so he was arrested.

Correct- Since he was a terrorist, he was arrested.



What is Preposition? | Prepositions with examples

Definition of preposition

A preposition is a word which defines relationship of noun or pronoun to other word in the sentence. Generally, prepositions are used before nouns or pronoun but sometimes, prepositions are not used before nouns or pronouns.


(a) She is going to railway station.

In the given example, “to” is a preposition which is defining the relation between “she” and “railway station”.

(b) There is a ball on table.

In the given example, ”on” is preposition which is establishing relation between ”ball” and ”table”.

(c) This is the boy whom I told you about.

(d) Here is the book that we are looking for.

NOTE- In the given example (a) and (b), ” about ” and ”for” are prepositions which are not used before the nouns.

Preposition of time – ”FOR”

Preposition ‘for’ is used to denote period of time.


(a) My brother has been playing football for two hours.

(b) They have been working in this field for three hours.

Preposition of time- ” SINCE”

“since” is used to denote ‘a point of time’.


(a) My father has been living in America since 1996.

(b) My friend has been working in this company since 2005.

Preposition of time – ”FROM”

‘From’ is also used to denote ” point of time” in the future tense or past tense.


(1) She will play with us from next week.

(2) Mike worked in this company from 1994 to 2005.

Preposition of time and place- ”AT”

”At ” is used to describe “hour’ and it is also used to denote places( small places).

(1) I study daily at 6 am. ( describing time)

(2) My father reads the newspaper at 7 am. ( describing time)

(3) My friend lives at Sikandra. ( denoting place)

Preposition of time and place- ”On”

It denotes ” day and date” and it is also used to denote places.


(1) She will came to meet me on Sunday. ( Preposition of time)

(2) My brother lost his book on Tuesday. (Preposition of time)

(2) I found my book on the table. ( Preposition of place)

Preposition of time- ” AFTER AND BEFORE”

After and before denote the period of time or point of time in the past.


(1) He finished his work before Christmas.

(2) She has came to school after a long time.

Preposition of time- ” TILL AND UNTIL”

Till and until are denotes point of time. The meaning of UNTIL is ‘ till not”.


(1) Do not move from here until I came.

(2) Do not move from here till I do not come.

Preposition of direction- ‘INTO’

It is used to describe ‘ motion towards inside.


(1) A black dog jumped into the river yesterday.

(2) I saw a ship sinking into the sea.

Preposition of direction- ” ACROSS”

It has different meanings. It is used to denote ”on the opposite side of”, ”from one side to another side”,


(1) My friend lives across the road. It means ( My friend lives on the opposite side of the river)

(2) A rope is tied across the river. It means ( A rope is tied from one side to another side)

Preposition of direction- ” COME ACROSS”

The meaning of ”come across” is ‘ to meet suddenly’. ‘With’ and ‘suddenly’ are never used with ‘ come across’.


Incorrect- I came across with her while she was walking on the road. ( Do not use ‘with’ with come across)

Correct- I came across her while she was walking on the road.

Incorrect- I suddenly came across while she was walking on the road. ( Do not use suddenly with come across)

Preposition of direction- ”AGAINST”

It is used to denote ‘ opposite’.

(1) He is against smoking.

(2) She is against eating tobacco.

Preposition of direction – ‘TOWARDS’

It is used to describe direction. It means ‘in the direction of’.


(1) Maria is coming towards her home.

(2) He is going towards the garden.

Preposition of time and place- ‘IN’

After is used in the meaning of “IN’ and it is also used to denote bigger places.


(1)I will provide you this book in a week. ( Preposition of time)

(2) She has been living in Delhi since 2005. ( Preposition of place)

Preposition of position- ‘ ABOVE AND BELOW ‘

They are used to denote level.


(1) Temperature of Delhi is above forty.

(2) My friend is below twenty.

Preposition of position- ‘OVER AND UNDER’

They are used to describe vertical position.


(1) She is sitting under the tree.

(2) I put the pen over the chair.

Preposition – ‘ BETWEEN’

Between is used to describe two things or person and ‘between’ is always followed by ‘ and ‘

(1) The boy who is running between Rahul and Sanjay, is my brother.



Learn Adjectives with examples | Types of adjectives

Definition of adjective.

An adjective is a word that qualifies a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives are usually come before nouns. Words like beautiful, good are descriptive words. These word describe the other words. These words are called adjectives.


  1. Maria is a beautiful girl.
  2. He is a good student.
  3. She is a intelligent woman.
  4. The boy is smart.

In the given sentences, the italic words are adjectives. Words – ”beautiful, good, intelligent, smart” are adjectives in the given sentences.These words- beautiful, good, intelligent, smart are qualify the girl,student, woman, boy in the given sentences.

Uses of adjectives

(1) Attributive-

An adjective is said to be used attributively when the adjective is comes close to and before the noun.


  • A red ball.
  • An intelligent boy.
  • A tall man.
  • Long hair.

(2) Predicative-

Adjective is said to be used predicatively when adjective expresses what is declared of some things or person, and come after the verbs.


  • The girl is tall.
  • The colour of my house is pink.
  • The hair of my sister is black.
  • My bike is fast.

Types of adjectives

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives are used indicate possession. ” My, our, your, his, her, its, their” are possessive adjectives


  • He is my brother.
  • It is my pen.
  • This is his book.
  • I like her painting.

Proper Adjectives

Proper adjective are derived from proper nouns. Like Indian(adjective) is derived from India(noun) and American(adjective) derived from America(noun).


  • Indians love to eat spicy food.

Quantitative Adjectives

Quantitative adjectives describe quantity. Words many, whole, little, lots of, a lot of, much, some, etc are quantitative adjectives.


  • My mother bought some vegetables.
  • I eat many things in the party yesterday.
  • She has lots of books.
  • I have much money to buy this bike.

Qualitative Adjectives

Qualitative adjectives describe the quality. Words like honest, long, short, tall, good, bad, smart , handsome, small etc are quantitative words.


  • She is very beautiful woman.
  • The handwriting of my friend is bad.
  • My father is a honest man.
  • His house is big.

Demonstrative Adjectives

This, that, these, those are demonstrative adjectives. We use these words to describe the nouns.


  • This book which is on the table is mine.
  • That bike is my favourite.
  • I want to buy these chocolates.
  • Those fruits in the kitchen is mine.

Numeral Adjectives

There are two types of numeral adjectives- (1) Definite adjective (2) Indefinite adjective

(1) Definite adjectives – There are three types of definite adjectives

(1) Cardinal- one, two, three, four, five etc.

(2) Ordinal- first, second, third, forth, fifth etc.

(3) Multiplicative- single, double, triple etc


  • I have one car.
  • I can not forget my first boyfriend.
  • There are four double rooms in my house.

The order of definite adjectives- Ordinal + cardinal + multiplicative


The first five double rooms of my hostel.

(2) Indefinite adjectives– Many, various, several, a great deal of, some, enough, etc are indefinite adjectives.


  • I have some cookies.
  • she has read many books till now.
  • I do not have enough money to buy this car.
  • Many second year students are here.

Interrogative Adjectives

Which, what, whose are interrogative adjectives. These words are used to ask questions.


  • Whose car is this ?
  • Which bike is yours?
  • What time will we go to watch movie?
  • Which place do you want to visit?

Emphasizing Adjectives

Own and very are emphasizing adjectives. These words are used to emphasize nouns.


  • This is my own bike.
  • It is the very(same) book that I wanted to read.

Exclamatory Adjectives

Exclamatory adjectives are used to express feelings, emotions. What, how are question words but these words are also used to show emotions.


  • What a beautiful picture it is!
  • How fast he eats!
  • What an ugly dog!
  • What a cute cat!

Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh masa tanggap Darurat Covid 19

Kebijakan untuk belajar dan mengajar dari rumah, memang sudah seharusnya diputuskan, setelah pandemi COVID-19 terus menjangkit masyarakat Indonesia. Tapi, tentunya ini membuat sejumlah pendidik, perlu memutar otak supaya bisa terus memberikan materi pelajaran di sisa semester genap ini.

Untuk sejumlah pendidik yang belum terbiasa dalam pembelajaran jarak jauh, mungkin kebijakan ini akan sedikit menyulitkan. Mungkin yang cukup harus dipikirkan itu tentang metode pembelajaran seperti apa yang cocok dan efektif saat pembelajaran jarak jauh.

Nah, lewat artikel ini, kita akan membahas beberapa poin yang bisa menjadi pertimbangan para pendidik saat melakukan pembelajaran jarak jauh.

Langkah-Langkah Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh

1. Langkah pertama yang bisa dilakukan, atau mungkin disarankan untuk dilakukan, adalah membuka kembali silabus. Melihat kembali silabus, dilakukan sebagai upaya melihat materi apa saja yang kiranya lebih diprioritaskan untuk menjadi bahan ajar dan dipelajari peserta didik.

Guru bisa menentukan bobot pelajaran untuk kemudian dibuatkan metode apa yang paling pas untuk mengukur sejauh mana peserta didik mampu memahami apa yang telah disampaikan. Apakah sudah memenuhi standar, atau ada yang perlu diberikan pemahaman lebih khusus.

2. Langkah kedua, mulailah mencari tahu dan memelajari teknologi apa yang cocok untuk melakukan pembelajaran jarak jauh. Memang, model pembelajaran seperti ini cukup asing dan mungkin saja banyak yang tidak terbiasa untuk melakukannya.

Tapi percayalah, Anda tetap harus belajar menggunakannya, sekalipun dalam waktu beberapa bulan lagi Anda akan pensiun dari tugas Anda dalam mencerdaskan peserta didik Anda.

Banyak teknologi belajar online yang sangat mudah digunakan. Mulai dari mengirim materi belajar, kemudian mengirim tugas sekolah, sampai pengajaran dengan tatap muka langsung.

Untuk menentukan teknologi mana yang cocok, tentunya sesuai kebutuhan Anda. Seperti yang sudah disampaikan pada poin pertama, tentukan dulu prioritas, kemudian bobot pelajarannya, baru pilihlah teknologi belajar yang tepat.

3. Langkah ketiga, jangan berikan terlalu banyak tugas untuk peserta didik Anda. Ingatlah, belajar di rumah ini adalah upaya kita semua untuk terjaga dan terhindar dari pandemi COVID-19.

Anak-anak dirumahkan, agar mereka tidak rentang bersinggungan dengan orang-orang lain. Selain itu, penting juga untuk mereka menjaga kondisi badan dan kesehatan, seperti berolahraga, makan-makanan sehat, dan tentunya merilekskan pikiran.

Akan jadi bahaya apabila peserta didik, kita biarkan sibuk dengan tugas-tugas dari pada pendidiknya di sekolah. Oleh karena itu, gunakanlah metode belajar yang efektif, menyenangkan, dan tentunya bisa dengan mudah dipahami.

Filosofi Nusantara

Dalam filosofi dasar Nusantara dikenal adanya motto “Memayu hayuning bawana” atau menyelematkan dan mensejahterakan alam semesta raya”. Identik dengan doktrin Islam yakni ”Hablumin alami”. Oleh sebab itu dalam menghargai sesama  mahkluk Tuhan Seru Sekalian Alam, nenek moyang menamakan bumi dengan Ibu dan angkasa (langit) dengan Bapa (ayah). Dan sebagai negara agraris telah dipetakan adanya “Pawukon” yakni  Ilmu Perbintangan Jawa (30 rasi berumur 210 hari) dan pedoman perputaran iklim yang memiliki siklusnya masing – masing yang disebut dengan “Pranata Mangsa” yang dikenal sejak abad XIX SM, dua abad sebelum ditemukannya ilmu perbintangan purba bangsa Peru.
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